Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα volcanic activity. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων
Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα volcanic activity. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων

Παρασκευή, Νοεμβρίου 28, 2014

Japan Cancels Dozens of Flights Following Volcano Eruption: Reports

Dozens of flights have been cancelled across southern Japan following the first eruption in 22 years of the country's largest active volcano, the Japan News reported Friday.

The active volcano Mount Aso in the southwest of Tokyo has been shooting out chunks of magma since Friday morning. It ejected lava debris and plumes of ash a kilometer (3,280 feet) high into the air on Wednesday after tremors began the day before, the newspaper reported.

Flights have been cancelled from the nearest city, Kumamoto, following a warning from the country’s Meteorological Agency to stay away from the volcanic crater. However the country’s observatory does not foresee an escalation in the eruption. Most of the activity occurred one hour within the explosion.

According to the newspaper, some hikers near the summit may have been hit by the flying rocks within a one kilometer radius of the volcano.

Mount Aso is Japan’s largest active volcano. In September, more than 60 people died when another volcano in the country, Mount Ontake, erupted. Mount Ontake's eruption was the worst in Japan for 90 years.

Τρίτη, Νοεμβρίου 11, 2014

Hawaii Volcano Incinerates First House

A stream of lava set a home on fire in a rural Hawaiian town that has been watching a slow-moving flow for months.
The molten rock hit the house Monday in Pahoa, the largest town in the Big Island's mostly agricultural Puna district. The home's residents already had left the house, the first destroyed by the lava stream.

The lava from Kilauea volcano entered the town October 26. Its leading edge remains about 180 meters from central Pahoa.
Pahoa firefighters will let a structure hit by lava burn, but will fight fires that spread or threaten other structures.

A relative of the homeowners was planning to be at the site to watch the house burn.  Officials made arrangements for homeowners to watch any homes burn as a means of closure and to document the destruction for insurance purposes.

Many residents have evacuated or are ready to leave if necessary.


Παρασκευή, Νοεμβρίου 07, 2014

Japan to restart 2 nuclear reactors despite local opposition, safety concerns

Two nuclear reactors in the southwestern prefecture of Kagoshima have been cleared to be restarted by Governor Yuichiro Ito and prefectural assembly, making the prefecture the first to gain such approval to restart its idled reactors since new safety regulations were introduced after the 2011 crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi plant.

Clearance for the Nos. 1 and 2 reactors at Kyushu Electric Power Co.'s Sendai plant in the prefecture was given Friday by Ito and the assembly, with the governor telling a news conference that while he effectively had "no choice" in the matter, the restart was "essential" and that Japan's nuclear watchdog had approved the reactors' safety standards and compliance.

Further safety inspections will be carried out by Japan's nuclear regulators, but pending final checks the two reactors are scheduled to be brought back online early next year, marking the first restart since the nuclear meltdowns, the worst of their kind since Chernobyl in 1986, at the Fukushima Daiichi complex in the northeast of Japan in March 2011.

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said the move was a positive step forward in bringing the idled plants back online and the government favors resuming generating nuclear power as fossil fuel imports for thermal generators are weighing heavily on the government's balance sheet.
  • However, not all residents in Satsumasendai city, which host the two reactors, supported the restart, with a solid contingent adamant that the plant remains unsafe and that local prefectural officials should be ashamed of complying so easily to the central government's wishes, instead of prioritizing their own communities.
  • Among some of the arguments voiced is the fact that the Sendai plant is located in a seismically active region with numerous active volcanic sites, and concerns are raised over the eruption of a nearby volcano.
They highlighted, in addition, that Japan's nuclear watchdog, the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA), must screen all safety requests and check new safety measures implemented by nuclear plant operators to meet the new regulations before greenlighting their restart. But evacuation plans, such as those developed to deal with an unprecedented volcanic eruption, are created by the local communities themselves and are not required to be mandated by the NRA.

While Ito said all evacuation plans and scenarios are "concrete and rational," what is considered "local approval" for the reactors to be restarted has been called into question, as Satsumasendai's neighboring villages and towns have no legal say on the matter.

In September, the NRA initially granted its approval to restart the two reactors at the Sendai plant, stating that the plant was first in line for being restarted, out of the 48 idled reactors nationwide.

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has been a staunch supporter of bringing the nation's nuclear power stations back online, as a weak yen, punctuated more so since Japan's central bank expanded its monetary easing program last week, forcing the currency to seven-year lows versus its major counterparts, has continued to push up the price of Japan's fuel imports, like liquified natural gas and coal, used to compensate for the lack of atomic energy.
 Source:Xinhua - globaltimes.cn

Japan local assembly okays restart of two reactors

A local assembly in Japan on Friday (Nov 7) approved plans to restart two nuclear reactors, removing a major hurdle to getting atomic power back online more than three years after the Fukushima disaster.

A majority of Kagoshima assembly members voted for the motion to resume operations at the Sendai plant in the southern Japanese prefecture, officials said. The move leaves as an obstacle only the formal approval of Kagoshima's powerful governor, which is expected later in the day, and marks a victory for the pro-nuclear government of Shinzo Abe in its campaign to re-fire atomic plants.

The assembly's approval came after the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) confirmed it believed the two units met toughened safety standards introduced after the Fukushima accident. Television footage showed about a dozen protesters in the public gallery of the assembly hall chanting "We oppose the restart". Governor Yuichiro Ito, who has the final say, is expected to announce his support later on Friday.

The actual restart, however, is likely to be delayed until next year as technical procedures are still under way, including more NRA approvals for remedial work at the site.

Following the tsunami-sparked catastrophe at Fukushima, Japan's entire stable of nuclear reactors were gradually switched off. Two were briefly restarted in 2012 but their power-down last September heralded an entirely nuclear-free Japan. While Prime Minister Abe's government and much of industry is keen to get back to atomic generation - largely because of the soaring costs of dollar denominated fossil fuels to an economy with a plunging currency - the public is unconvinced.

Communities living right next door to nuclear plants, who often enjoy grants from utility companies and depend on the power stations for employment, are frequently sympathetic to restarts. However, there is hostility from those living further afield who enjoy no direct benefits but see themselves as in the firing line in the event of another accident like Fukushima.

Permission from local representatives will be good news for pro-nuclear Abe, who has set his heart on persuading his wary electorate that the world's third largest economy must return to an energy source that once supplied more than a quarter of its power.

Fukushima was the world's worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. It forced tens of thousands of people from their homes, with many of them still displaced amid warnings some areas might have to be abandoned forever.
- AFP/nd


Τετάρτη, Οκτωβρίου 29, 2014

Japan to reopen 1st nuclear plant after Fukushima disaster - despite volcano risks

A local council has voted to re-open the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant on the outermost western coast of Japan, despite local opposition and meteorologists’ warnings, following tremors in a nearby volcano.

Nineteen out of 26 members of the city council of Satsumasendai approved the reopening that is scheduled to take place from early 2015. Like all of Japan’s 48 functional reactors, Sendai’s 890 MW generators were mothballed in the months following the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.

Satsumasendai, a town of 100,000 people, relies heavily on state subsidies and jobs, which are dependent on the continuing operation of the plant.
But other towns, located within sight of the plant, do not reap the same benefits, yet say they are being exposed to the same risks. A survey conducted by the local Minami-Nippon Shimbun newspaper earlier this year said that overall, 60 percent of those in the region were in favor of Sendai staying shut. In Ichikikushikino, a 30,000-strong community just 5 kilometers away, more than half of the population signed a petition opposing the restart. Fewer than half of the major businesses in the region reported that they backed a reopening, despite potential economic benefits. 

Regional governor Yuichiro Ito has waved away the objections, insisting that only the city in which the plant is located is entitled to make the decision.
While most fears have centered around a lack of transparency and inadequate evacuation plans, Sendai is also located near the volcanically active Kirishima mountain range. Mount Ioyama, located just 65 kilometers away from the plant, has been experiencing tremors in recent weeks, prompting the Meteorological Agency to issue a warning. The government’s nuclear agency has dismissed volcanic risks over Sendai’s lifetime as “negligible,” however.................http://rt.com/news/200175-sendai-fukushima-nuclear-volcano/

Παρασκευή, Οκτωβρίου 03, 2014

Δύσκολη η πρόβλεψη ηφαιστειακών εκρήξεων

Οι εκρήξεις ηφαιστείων είναι δύσκολο να προβλεφθούν, λέει ο Μπίργκερ Λιρ, ηφαιστειολόγος στο κέντρο Χέλμχολτς του Πότσνταμ. Ακόμα και η πλέον σύγχρονη δορυφορική τεχνολογία δεν είναι σε θέση να προειδοποιήσει έγκαιρα. 

Προβλέψεις για τον χρόνο και την ένταση μιας έκρηξης ηφαιστείου είναι, ακόμα και σήμερα, σχεδόν αδύνατες. Σε ηφαίστεια που εδώ και 400 χρόνια δεν παρουσιάζουν καμιά δραστηριότητα, βρίσκονται όμως υπό επιστημονική παρακολούθηση τα πράγματα είναι ευκολότερα, λέει ο γερμανός ηφαιστειολόγος Μπίργκερ Λιρ σε συνέντευξή του στην DW.
Όταν όμως έχουμε να κάνουμε με ηφαίστεια που εκρήγνυνται κάθε δύο ή τέσσερα χρόνια τότε μια ακριβής πρόβλεψη είναι πολύ δύσκολη. Δεν είμαστε επομένως σε θέση να πούμε πότε θα γίνει μια έκρηξη και ποιες επιπτώσεις θα έχει έτσι ώστε να ληφθούν τα απαραίτητα μέτρα ασφαλείας. Συνεπώς η απόφαση για την εκκένωση χωριών γύρω από ένα ηφαίστειο σχετίζεται πολύ περισσότερο με το προαίσθημα παρά με συγκεκριμένες πληροφορίες. Εδώ η επιστήμη φθάνει στα όριά της, τονίζει ο γερμανός ειδικός.
Τα τελευταία χρόνια οι επιστήμονες χρησιμοποιούν την δορυφορική τεχνολογία για να μελετήσουν την δραστηριότητα των ηφαιστείων. Στη γη όμως υπάρχουν σήμερα περίπου 1.500 ενεργά ηφαίστεια και ο αριθμός των δορυφόρων σε τροχιά γύρω από τη γη δεν αρκούν για να μελετηθούν όλα. Για αυτό το λόγο συμβαίνουν εκρήξεις, τις οποίες κανείς δεν περίμενε, τονίζει ο Μπίργκερ Λιρ. Για την επιστήμη οι δορυφόροι έχουν ωστόσο μεγάλη σημασία. Αλλά για να αξιοποιηθούν τα δορυφορικά συστήματα για την προστασία ανθρώπων που κινδυνεύουν χρειαζόμαστε ένα πολύ πιο πυκνό δίκτυο δορυφόρων, το οποίο να είναι σε θέση να αποστέλλει πληροφορίες λεπτό προς λεπτό, πιστεύει ο γερμανός ειδικός.

Καθοριστικά τα μέτρα προφύλαξης
Σύμφωνα με τον Μπίργκερ Λιρ, για να μην θρηνούμε ανθρώπινα θύματα στις εκρήξεις το ιδανικό θα ήταν να μην υπάρχουν οικισμοί γύρω από ηφαίστεια. Βέβαια στην πρόσφατη έκρηξη στο ηφαίστειο Οντάκε της Ιαπωνίας τα θύματα ήταν ορειβάτες, οι οποίοι βρίσκονταν κοντά στην κορυφή, που είναι εξαιρετικά επικίνδυνο. Στα σημεία αυτά εμφανίζεται ξαφνικά η λάβα και τότε δεν υπάρχει συχνά δυνατότητα διαφυγής.
«Και εγώ εργάζομαι σε ενεργά ηφαίστεια. Όμως ενημερώνομαι εκ των προτέρων όσο το δυνατόν καλύτερα. Αν επί παραδείγματι οι αρχές σημάνουν συναγερμό τότε δεν ανεβαίνω στο ηφαίστειο. Ούτε εγώ, ούτε οι συνάδελφοί μου. Όμως οι τουρίστες ή οι ορειβάτες πολύ συχνά δεν λαμβάνουν υπόψη τις προειδοποιήσεις και θεωρούν ότι δεν συντρέχει κίνδυνος από ένα ηφαίστειο που εκείνη τη στιγμή δεν παρουσιάζει καμία δραστηριότητα. Και έτσι θρηνούμε θύματα όπως έγινε πρόσφατα στο Οντάκε», υπογραμμίζει ο γερμανός επιστήμονας.
Clara Walther / Στέφανος Γεωργακόπουλος

Κυριακή, Αυγούστου 31, 2014

Iceland issues red alert after new eruption near volcano

Iceland on Sunday raised its aviation alert over its largest volcano to the highest level of red after a new eruption nearby.

The alert entails a ban on all flights below 6,000 feet (1.8 kilometers) within a radius of 10 nautical miles (18.5 kilometer) of Bardarbunga.

"All airports are open. The area has no effect on any airports," the Civil Protection Office said in a statement.

Sunday was the third time in a week that Iceland issued a red alert for aviation due to seismic activity near Bardarbunga.

The latest eruption happened roughly in the same area of another eruption on Friday, the authorities said. Bardarbunga, in the southeast of the country, is Iceland's second-highest peak.

A major explosion at Bardarbunga, located under Europe's largest glacier, could signal a replay of the global travel chaos triggered when another Icelandic peak blew four years ago, unleashing a massive ash cloud across Europe.

Source: AFP - globaltimes.cn
31/8/14 (1/9/14)


  • M 5.0 - ICELAND - 2014-08-31 12:01:47 UTC

Magnitude    mb 5.0
Region    ICELAND
Date time    2014-08-31 12:01:47.6 UTC
Location    64.71 N ; 17.44 W
Depth    2 km

    224 km E of Reykjavík, Iceland / pop: 113,906 / local time: 12:01:47.6 2014-08-31
113 km S of Akureyri / pop: 16,563 / local time: 12:01:00.0 2014-08-31 


  • M 4.6 - ICELAND - 2014-08-31 16:12:36 UTC

Magnitude    Mw 4.6
Region    ICELAND
Date time    2014-08-31 16:12:36.5 UTC
Location    64.78 N ; 17.27 W

   15 km
Distances    234 km E of Reykjavík, Iceland / pop: 113,906 / local time: 16:12:36.5 2014-08-31
108 km S of Akureyri / pop: 16,563 / local time: 16:12:00.0 2014-08-31 


Κυριακή, Αυγούστου 24, 2014

Strong quakes shake Icelandic volcano

Two strong earthquakes on Sunday shook Iceland's largest volcano, which is on orange alert lowered from red one for one day amid fears of an imminent eruption, the Icelandic Met Office said.

A large explosion at the Bardarbunga volcano could signal a replay of the global travel chaos caused by the eruption of another Icelandic peak four years ago, which created a massive ash cloud across Europe.

The earthquakes were listed on the Met Office's website with intensities of 5.3 and 5.1 on the Richter scale, which makes them the strongest recorded in the region since the current seismic cycle began last week.

On Saturday, Iceland raised its alert over the Bardarbunga volcano to the highest level and closed airspace in the area, but all of Iceland's airports remained open.

Met Office official Gunnar Gudmundsson told Icelandic public broadcaster RUV that it was difficult to say whether the earthquakes indicated an increased risk of an eruption.

Police said some 300 people had been evacuated in a popular tourist area located north of the Bardarbunga volcano, which lies in southeast Iceland.

"This is quite an extensive evacuation, but it is only in the canyons themselves, not in the inhabited area," Husavi chief of police Svavar Palsson told local media.

"Most of the people were foreign tourists."

The authorities said they had decided not to evacuate residents of nearby areas, but encouraged them to be alert and have their mobile phones switched on at all times.

Police said that the ice layer in the area was between 150 and 400 meters thick.

  • Local authorities fear floods from melting ice could cause serious damage to the country's infrastructure.
Seismologists had recorded an earthquake of 4.5 on the Richter scale on Monday, when Iceland decided to raise its aviation alert to orange, the second-highest level of five.

The eruption of Eyjafjoell, a smaller volcano, in April 2010 caused travel mayhem, stranding more than 8 million people in the widest airspace shutdown since World War II.

"There's nothing we can do if we get another big eruption like that of Eyjafjoell except to interrupt air traffic in the dangerous areas," Icelandic Civil Aviation Administration spokesman Fridthor Eydal was quoted as saying earlier this week.

"It's really the only thing we can do," he said.

Iceland's most active sub-glacial volcano Grimsvotn erupted in 2011, forcing the country to temporarily shut its airspace and sparking fears of a repeat of the Eyjafjoell flight chaos.

Iceland is home to more than 100 volcanic mountains, some of which are among the most active in the world.

Sources: AFP - globaltimes.cn



Σάββατο, Αυγούστου 23, 2014

Iceland issues aviation alert on volcano activity (M 4.7 - ICELAND - 2014-08-23 18:33:06 UTC.....local time: 18:33)

Iceland's Meteorological Office says a subglacial eruption is underway at the Bardarbunga volcano, which has been rattled by thousands of earthquakes over the past week.

Vulcanologist Melissa Pfeffer said seismic data indicates that lava from the volcano is melting ice beneath the Vatnajokull glacier. She said it was not clear when, or if, the eruption would melt the ice and send steam and ash into the air.

Minutes earlier, Iceland raised its aviation alert for the volcano to the highest level of red on Saturday, indicating an eruption that could cause “significant emission of ash into the atmosphere.” Red is the highest alert warning on a five-point scale.

Scientists had planned to fly over the glacier later Saturday to look for changes on the surface but it was not clear if that would still take place.

Authorities had evacuated several hundred people earlier this week from the highlands north of the Vatnajokull glacier as a precaution. The area is uninhabited but popular with hikers.

Iceland sits on a volcanic hot spot in the Atlantic's mid-oceanic ridge and eruptions have occurred frequently, triggered when the Earth's plates move and when magma from deep underground pushes its way to the surface.

A 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajokul volcano produced an ash cloud that caused a week of international aviation chaos, with more than 100,000 flights cancelled. Aviation regulators since have reformed policies about flying through ash, so a new eruption would be unlikely to cause that much disruption.

Pfeffer said the amount of ash produced would depend on the thickness of the ice.

“The thicker the ice, the more water there is, the more explosive it will be and the more ash-rich the eruption will be,” she said.


  • M 4.7 - ICELAND - 2014-08-23 18:33:06 UTC.....local time: 18:33
Magnitude    mb 4.7
Region    ICELAND
Date time    2014-08-23 18:33:06.2 UTC
Location    64.70 N ; 17.48 W
Depth    2 km
Distances    222 km E of Reykjavík, Iceland / pop: 113,906 / local time: 18:33:06.2 2014-08-23
113 km S of Akureyri / pop: 16,563 / local time: 18:33:00.0 2014-08-23 


Τετάρτη, Αυγούστου 20, 2014

Iceland orders evacuation due to possible volcano eruption

The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police (NCIP) announced on Tuesday that the authorities were evacuating the north of Vatnajokull to prepare against a possible eruption at Bardarbunga volcano in southeast Iceland.

The NCIP said in a statement that it has raised the Civil Protection level to Alert Phase as all roads leading into the area were closed, and the authorities in Husavik and Seydisfjordur were evacuating the area north of Vatnajokull.
A surveillance plane of the Icelandic Coast Guard has been ordered to monitor the volcano's situation.

This decision was a safety measure, said the statement, adding the seismic activity in Bardarbunga might lead to a volcanic eruption.

Bardarbunga volcano, located under the 800-meter-thick Vatnajokull glacier, is 225 km northeast from Reykjavik, capital of Iceland. Bardarbunga is Iceland's second highest mountain at 2,000 meters above sea level.

Since the onset of the earthquake swarm at Bardarbunga on Saturday morning, about 2,600 earthquakes have been detected by the earthquake monitoring network of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO).

IMO has raised the danger level from yellow to orange, which indicates the volcano showed heightened or escalating unrest with increased potential of eruption.
If the volcano erupts, a major flood fed by melting ice from the glacier could be expected to the north, the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service reported.

There have been 48 eruptions in Iceland in last 100 years. The latest huge eruption happened in 2010, when the ash emission from the Eyjafjallajokull volcano forced an air travel disruption in Europe.
By AgenciesX Sources: Xinhua  -globaltimes.cn

Τρίτη, Αυγούστου 19, 2014

Threat to flights as Iceland's biggest volcano rumbles

REYKJAVIK: Iceland has warned that its largest volcano is in danger of erupting, four years after millions of air travellers were grounded by a huge ash cloud from another peak.
Scientists believe the ash from an eruption at Bardarbunga could disrupt transatlantic and northern European air traffic, with floods of melting ice likely to cause serious damage to the country's infrastructure.
The Icelandic Meteorological Office raised its aviation alert to the second-highest level on Monday after four days of increasing seismic activity, signalling a heightened risk of eruption.

The eruption of Iceland's smaller Eyjafjoell volcano in April 2010 caused global travel chaos, stranding more than eight million travellers as volcanic ash spread across Europe.
The alert was raised to "orange" after seismologists recorded an earthquake of 4.5 on the Richter scale early on Monday, the strongest in the region since 1996. Roads in a sparsely populated area north of Bardarbunga were closed on Tuesday, as the Meteorological Office said it had recorded some 2,600 tremors over the past four days.
Bardarbunga, Iceland's second-highest peak, rises to more than 2,000 metres, caps the country's largest volcanic system. It sits under the vast Vatnajokull glacier, the country's largest, in the southeast of the island, one of the most active seismic areas on the planet.
Bryndis Brandsdottir, a geophysicist at the University of Iceland, told public broadcaster Ruv on Tuesday that the latest readings indicated that magma was not approaching the surface, but rather remaining "three to seven kilometres below".
"We meet twice a day, but the earthquake activity still comes in waves. There do not seem to be any changes, but it is still very powerful," Vidir Reynisson, department manager at Iceland's Civil Protection Department, told broadcaster 365.
In 2010, the Eyjafjoell volcano under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier, further to the south, shot a massive plume of volcanic debris up to nine kilometres into the sky, blowing ash across to mainland Europe. The ash cloud caused the planet's biggest airspace shutdown since World War II, with fears it could damage aircraft engines.
In 2011, Iceland's most active sub-glacial volcano Grimsvotn erupted, forcing Iceland to temporarily shut its airspace amid fears of a repeat of the Eyjafjoell flight chaos.

Δευτέρα, Απριλίου 28, 2014

USA : les chercheurs ont démenti les rumeurs sur l’éruption d’un supevolcan

 La dernière éruption enregistrée du supervolcan Yellowstone s'est produite il y a 600.000 ans.

Toutefois, les experts et les volcanologues ne considèrent pas que la migration des bisons dans le parc national de Yellowstone et des séismes de plus en plus fréquents dans cette zone soient des symptômes d’une nouvelle éruption gigantesque.

Il y a 2,1 millions d’années, le volcan de Yellowstone a recouvert près d’un quart du territoire des Etats-Unis.

Selon Peter Chervelli, le volcanologue de US Geological Survey, le séisme qui a eu lieu a début d’avril 2014 au parc national de Yellowstone était certes le plus puissant au cours de ces 30 dernières années, mais il ne devrait pas susciter l’inquiétude.

Πέμπτη, Νοεμβρίου 21, 2013

Japan hopes to expand its territorial waters /Erupting island rises south of Tokyo (PHOTOS, VIDEO)

The Japanese government hopes to expand its territorial waters as a result of the occurrence of a large volcanic formation in the Pacific Ocean, which can later become a full-fledged island.

This was announced today at a press conference in Tokyo by Chief Cabinet Secretary, Esihide Suga.

“If this formation becomes a real island, the area of our territorial waters will increase”, - he said.

In the area of ​​the newborn island, columns of ash arise to a height of about 600 meters from the water. Hot stones are been thrown in the air. The situation is being monitored by a patrolling aircraft of the Coast Guard.
  • A volcano eruption has raised a small islet in the sea off the Japanese coast. The Japanese Coast Guard has issued a warning as the new land mass is spitting steam, black smoke, ash and rocks.
The new island is part of the Ogasawara chain, also known as the Bonin Islands, a group of some 20 uninhabited islands located approximately 1,000 kilometres from the Japanese capital. The islet is estimated to be about 200 meters in diameter.
The new island may be eroded away just as quickly as it appeared, but it also may become a permanent part of the chain, volcanologist Hiroshi Ito, who travelled with the Coast Guard, told the FNN news network.
The eruption on Thursday is the first reported in the area since the mid-1970s. Most volcanic activity there goes undetected, because it goes on deep on the seabed along the Izu-Ogasawara-Marianas Trench.
The Japanese government is quite sensitive about the country’s territorial supremacy and have a number of border disputes with neighbours. It welcomed the unexpected addition.
"If it becomes a full-fledged island, we would be happy to have more territory," governmental spokesman Yoshihide Suga said.............fotos & video.... http://rt.com/news/japan-sea-volcano-eruption-066/

Τρίτη, Νοεμβρίου 19, 2013

Científicos descubren volcán bajo hielo de la Antártida occidental.

Científicos de Estados Unidos (EE.UU.) hallaron un volcán activo a un kilómetro bajo el hielo de la Antártida occidental. El hallazgo preocupa a los expertos que temen que las altas temperaturas generadas incremente la tasa de derretimiento del hielo de una de las principales corrientes del continente, informó este lunes la prensa internacional.

El descubrimiento fue publicado el fin de semana en la revista Nature Geosciene y este se produjo cuando los expertos estudiaban la región de Marie Byrd Land, en la Antártida
El profesor de Ciencias Terrestres y Planetarias en la Universidad de Washington en St. Louis, EE.UU., Doug Wiens, quien forma parte del equipo de científicos, detalló que es el hallazgo se realizó al detectar un alto flujo de calor a través de la corteza en la región de Marie Byrd Land que "puede influir en la estabilidad del hielo de la Antártida".

Los investigadores detectaron dos eventos sísmicos en 2010 y 2011 a 25 y 40 kilómetros de profundidad, respectivamente, bajo los glaciares antárticos. Tras un estudio exhaustivo de estos hechos, los expertos se mostraron convencidos de que se trataba de un nuevo volcán que se estaba formando a un kilómetro bajo el hielo.

"Interpretamos estos eventos sísmicos como profundos terremotos de largo período, con base en su frecuencia inusual [de 2 a 4 ciclos por segundo]”, explican los investigadores, que añaden que estos terremotos, que tuvieron lugar por debajo de volcanes activos, son causados por una profunda actividad magmática, y en algunos casos, preceden a erupciones.
Otros científicos conjeturan que el movimiento sísmico provendría de Monte Waesche, un volcán existente cerca del Monte Sidley, pero los científicos no saben cuándo estuvo activo, aunque la capa de ceniza que lo cubre establece que la erupción fue hace ocho mil años.
Como conclusión, los investigadores señalan que estas observaciones "proporcionan una fuerte evidencia de la actividad magmática en curso".

teleSUR - Rt - Abc.es /jl - FC

Científicos descubren volcán bajo hielo de la Antártida occidental.

Científicos de Estados Unidos (EE.UU.) hallaron un volcán activo a un kilómetro bajo el hielo de la Antártida occidental. El hallazgo preocupa a los expertos que temen que las altas temperaturas generadas incremente la tasa de derretimiento del hielo de una de las principales corrientes del continente, informó este lunes la prensa internacional.

El descubrimiento fue publicado el fin de semana en la revista Nature Geosciene y este se produjo cuando los expertos estudiaban la región de Marie Byrd Land, en la Antártida
El profesor de Ciencias Terrestres y Planetarias en la Universidad de Washington en St. Louis, EE.UU., Doug Wiens, quien forma parte del equipo de científicos, detalló que es el hallazgo se realizó al detectar un alto flujo de calor a través de la corteza en la región de Marie Byrd Land que "puede influir en la estabilidad del hielo de la Antártida".
Los investigadores detectaron dos eventos sísmicos en 2010 y 2011 a 25 y 40 kilómetros de profundidad, respectivamente, bajo los glaciares antárticos. Tras un estudio exhaustivo de estos hechos, los expertos se mostraron convencidos de que se trataba de un nuevo volcán que se estaba formando a un kilómetro bajo el hielo.

"Interpretamos estos eventos sísmicos como profundos terremotos de largo período, con base en su frecuencia inusual [de 2 a 4 ciclos por segundo]”, explican los investigadores, que añaden que estos terremotos, que tuvieron lugar por debajo de volcanes activos, son causados por una profunda actividad magmática, y en algunos casos, preceden a erupciones.
Otros científicos conjeturan que el movimiento sísmico provendría de Monte Waesche, un volcán existente cerca del Monte Sidley, pero los científicos no saben cuándo estuvo activo, aunque la capa de ceniza que lo cubre establece que la erupción fue hace ocho mil años.
Como conclusión, los investigadores señalan que estas observaciones "proporcionan una fuerte evidencia de la actividad magmática en curso".
teleSUR - Rt - Abc.es /jl - FC

Κυριακή, Νοεμβρίου 17, 2013

Could volcanoes be causing Antarctic ice loss?

AFP - Accelerating ice loss from the Antarctic ice sheet could be due in part to active volcanoes under the frozen continent's eastern part, a study said on Sunday.
From 2002 to 2011, the average annual rate of Antarctic icesheet loss increased from about 30 billion tonnes to about 147 billion tonnes, the UN's panel of climate scientists reported in September.
The icesheet is a mass of glacial land ice -- one such sheet covers most of Greenland and the other Antarctica, and together they contain most of the freshwater on Earth.
The sheets are constantly moving, slowly flowing downhill and seawards under their own weight. Portions that extend out over the water are called ice shelf.

Previous research has blamed warmer seas swirling in a circular fashion around Antarctica for the quicker pace of icesheet loss from the southernmost continent.
These waters erode ice shelves, went the theory. And as more of the shelves disappeared, the quicker the sheet would flow and lose ice to the sea.
But in a new paper in the journal Nature Geoscience geologists led by Amanda Lough at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, suggested that, in West Antarctica, the faster flow may be also be due to volcanoes.
These heat the underside of the ice, causing melting that lubricates the flow, they suggested.
Evidence for this comes from recently deployed sensors that recorded two "swarms" of seismic activity under Mary Byrd Land, a highland region of West Antarctica, in 2010 and 2011.
Using ice-penetrating radar, the team found an intriguing elliptically-shaped deposit, measuring about 1,000 square kilometres (386 square miles) in the area, at a depth of 1,400 metres (4,550 feet).
  • The deposit is believed to be volcanic ash, spewed out by an enormous eruption some 8,000 years ago -- an estimate reached on the assumption it has since been covered by ice accumulating at the rate of 12.5 centimetres (five inches) a year.
"Together, these observations provide strong evidence for ongoing magmatic activity and demonstrate that volcanism continues to migrate southwards."
Several volcanoes were known to exist in West Antarctica, but none were thought to be active.
"Eruptions at this site are unlikely to penetrate the 1.2 to two-km (0.75-1.2-mile) -thick overlying ice, but would generate large volumes of melt water that could significantly affect ice stream flow," said the study.

Τρίτη, Αυγούστου 20, 2013

Οι 3 αποσιωπημένες μέθοδοι πρόγνωσης σεισμών - 2VIDEO: Antifatalist AVERTING electric storms-quakes-volcanism, ice-ages

Ο κύριος ερευνητής Σεισμολογίας του Εθνικού Αστεροσκοπείου Αθηνών, δρ Γεράσιμος Χουλιάρας, σε συνέντευξή του επισημαίνει ότι: "Στη διεθνή επιστημονική βιβλιογραφία, υπάρχουν αρκετές πετυχημένες προγνώσεις όλων των κατηγοριών άμεσης, βραχείας, μέσης και μακράς διάρκειας". http://www.zougla.gr/sismoiblog/article/prognosi-sismon-ke-antisismiki-prostasia

Οι αλαζόνες μοιρολάτρες εμποδίζουν ΚΑΘΕ ΠΡΟΝΟΙΑ, για να μην παραδεχτούν ότι είναι και αυτοί υποψήφιοι άστεγοι σε περίπτωση όχι μόνο μεγάλων σεισμών στην περιοχή τους, αλλά και από έκρηξη σε ραδιενεργοκτόνο σταθμό σε άλλη χώρα, όπως συνέβη μετά τις εκρήξεις στη Φουκουσίμα το 2011, που ήδη έχουν ξεκινήσει να αποδεκατίζουν την Ιαπωνία...

1. Η πιο εύκολη και ΔΟΚΙΜΑΣΜΕΝΗ μέθοδος πρόγνωσης (όπως προκύπτει από την έγκαιρη εκκένωση 1 εκ. κατοίκων του Χάιτσενκ στην Κίνα το 1975, αλλά και από την επίσης σωστή πρόβλεψη στο γειτονικό Τάνγκσαν την επόμενη χρονιά, που, λόγω εσωτερικών διαμαχών, δεν ακολουθήθηκε από εκκένωση: 700.000 θύματα...), είναι η παρατήρηση μαζικής ηλεκτρικής διέγερσης ζώων - ατμόσφαιρας, η οποία συνοψίζεται εκπληκτικά στα ΔΩΡΕΑΝ βιβλία τού κορυφαίου Ιάπωνα φυσικού Μ. Ικέγια, τα οποία διατίθενται στο διαδίκτυο (http://motoji-ikeya.jpn.cx/quakesandpets/index.html), το ένα ΚΑΙ στα ελληνικά, από το οποίο συνοπτικά:
Πρόδρομα φαινόμενα που συμβαίνουν αρκετές ώρες ή ημέρες πριν από τους σεισμούς
-Kίτρινος ουρανός ή κόκκινο φεγγάρι, σύννεφα ή ομίχλη, φώτα στην ατμόσφαιρα, που λόγω σύγχυσης με τα αεροπλάνα, αποκαλούνται “UFO”.
-Ζώα που φεύγουν από την περιοχή τού επικέντρου, ανήσυχα, ακόμα και μερικά που βγαίνουν ξαφνικά από χειμερία νάρκη. Στην Άκουιλα το 2009, οι βάτραχοι έφυγαν 5 μέρες πριν από το σεισμό, αλλά οι υπηρεσίες ΑΔΙΑΦΟΡΗΣΑΝ, ενώ ΛΟΓΟΚΡΙΝΑΝ ΕΠΙΤΥΧΗ ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΗ... Επτά ανευθυνο-υπεύθυνοι καταδικάστηκαν σε μεγάλες ποινές φυλάκισης.
-Φυτά που ανθίζουν εκτός εποχής ή κλείνουν τα φύλλα τους ή μαραίνονται.
-Ηλεκτρικές συσκευές δυσλειτουργούν, ανοιγοκλείνουν μόνες τους ή κάνουν περίεργους θορύβους.
-Ηλεκτρομαγνητικά ρεύματα στη γη, υπόκωφοι θόρυβοι, ανύψωση στάθμης νερών.
-Αλλαγές στη θερμοκρασία πηγών/πηγαδιών.
2. Τα τελευταία χρόνια τόσο από τη ΝΑΣΑ όσο και από άλλους σχετικούς φορείς, έχει ανακοινωθεί ότι δορυφόροι καταγράφουν έντονη φόρτιση της ιονόσφαιρας πριν από δυνατούς σεισμούς (ενδεικτικά: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMIN33A..03J), αλλά η παθολογική μοιρολατρεία δεν αφήνει ακόμα το μυαλό των αλαζόνων να καταλάβει ότι άλλη μια (αποτρέψιμη) συμφορά, όπως εκείνη των πολλαπλών εκρήξεων στη Φουκουσίμα το 2011, μπορεί να αφανίσει ΟΛΗ την ανθρωπότητα...
3. Στο διεθνές συνέδριο Geocataclysm, προτάθηκε, παράλληλα με τις προαναφερόμενες μεθόδους, να γίνεται συνεχής μέτρηση της ηλεκτρικής φόρτισης των ρηγμάτων και των ηφαιστειακών κρατήρων, ώστε, σε περίπτωση επικίνδυνης αύξησής της, όχι μόνο να εκκενώνονται έγκαιρα οι γύρω περιοχές, αλλά να προλαβαίνουμε ακόμα και να εκφορτίζουμε τη περιοχή με μεγάλα αλεξικέραυνα περιμετρικά ρηγμάτων-κρατήρων, τα οποία ήδη επιμερίζουν τον γαλαξιακό ηλεκτρισμό στα αστικά κέντρα, γι΄ αυτό δε γίνονται επίκεντρα σεισμών. Όταν η φόρτιση γίνεται στη θάλασσα, τότε τα ψάρια εγκαταλείπουν την περιοχή, ενώ εκεί τα αλεξικέραυνα μπορούν να τοποθετηθούν πάνω σε πλωτήρες. 


Τρίτη, Ιανουαρίου 08, 2013

Πώς η κλιματική αλλαγή θα μπορούσε να επηρεάσει τα ηφαίστεια

Θα μπορούσε η κλιματική αλλαγή να επηρεάσει την ηφαιστειακή δραστηριότητα; Αυτό υποστηρίζουν Αμερικανικοί και Γερμανοί ερευνητές σε έκθεσή τους, η οποία δημοσιεύεται στην επιθεώρηση Geology.
Μέχρι σήμερα ήταν γνωστό ότι τα ηφαιστειακά φαινόμενα μπορούν να έχουν τεράστιες επιπτώσεις για το κλίμα και τον πλανήτη γενικότερα. Έχει, για παράδειγμα, διατυπωθεί η θεωρία ότι ο μεγάλος αφανισμός στο τέλος της Πέρμιας Περιόδου προκλήθηκε, μεταξύ άλλων, από ηφαιστειακές εκρήξεις που μείωσαν τη θερμοκρασία του πλανήτη, δηλητηριάζοντας την ατμόσφαιρα και τις θάλασσες.

Από τη μελέτη τους, οι ερευνητές στο Χάρβαρντ και στο Κέντρο Ωκεανολογικών Ερευνών GEOMAR του Κίελου, είδαν ότι η αλληλεπίδραση κλίματος και ηφαιστείων μπορεί να λειτουργήσει και αντίστροφα. Όπως λένε, σε περιόδους ραγδαίων κλιματικών μεταβολών, τα τελευταία 1 εκατομμύριο χρόνια, το λιώσιμο των παγετώνων και η άνοδος της στάθμης των υδάτων που αυτό προκαλεί, μπορούν να οδηγήσουν σε αύξηση των ηφαιστειακών εκρήξεων.
«Όλοι γνωρίζουν ότι τα ηφαίστεια επηρεάζουν το κλίμα», δήλωσε στο LiveScience η γεωφυσικός στο GEOMAR Μάριον Γέγκεν, μία από τους συντάκτες της έκθεσης. «Αυτό που εμείς βρήκαμε είναι ακριβώς το αντίθετο».
Η μελέτη βασίστηκε σε κλιματικό μοντέλο, το οποίο τους έδειξε πώς οι κλιματικές μεταβολές επηρέασαν τις πιέσεις που ασκούνται σε διαφορετικά σημεία του φλοιού της Γης. Επιπλέον, έγιναν επιτόπιες έρευνες, στα ηφαίστεια της Κεντρικής Αμερικής. «Υπήρξαν περίοδοι, κατά τις οποίες οι εκρήξεις ήταν σημαντικά ισχυρότερες σε σχέση με άλλες εποχές», δήλωσε ο βασικός συντάκτης της έκθεσης Δρ. Στέφεν Κούτερολφ.
Όπως τονίζεται πάντως, τα ευρήματα βασίζονται στις μεταβολές του κλίματος από φυσικούς παράγοντες. Δεν είναι σαφές, λοιπόν, κατά πόσο η ανθρωπογενής υπερθέρμανση θα μπορούσε να έχει τις ίδιες συνέπειες για τα ηφαίστεια. Σύμφωνα με τη Γέγκεν, κάτι τέτοιο είναι θεωρητικά εφικτό, όμως κανείς δεν μπορεί να το επιβεβαιώσει, καθώς οι επιπτώσεις αυτές δεν συμπίπτουν με την κλιματική αλλαγή, αλλά εκδηλώνονται αρκετά αργότερα.
«Προβλέπουμε ότι το διάστημα που μεσολαβεί είναι περίπου 2.500 χρόνια», εξήγησε η ίδια. «Ακόμη λοιπόν κι αν αλλάξουμε το κλίμα, δεν θα περιμέναμε να συμβεί κάτι μέσα στα επόμενα χρόνια».
(naftemporiki.gr, 8/1/2013)

  • When the ice melts, the Earth spews fire

GEOMAR researchers discover a link between climate and volcanic eruptions
19 December 2012/Kiel. It has long been known that volcanic activity can cause short-term variations in climate. Now, researchers at the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (Germany), together with colleagues from Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) have found evidence that the reverse process also occurs: Climate affects volcanic activity. Their study is now online in the international journal "Geology".

In 1991, it was a disaster for the villages nearby the erupting Philippine volcano Pinatubo. But the effects were felt even as far away as Europe. The volcano threw up many tons of ash and other particles into the atmosphere causing less sunlight than usual to reach the Earth’s surface. For the first few years after the eruption, global temperatures dropped by half a degree. In general, volcanic eruptions can have a strong short-term impact on climate. Conversely, the idea that climate may also affect volcanic eruptions on a global scale and over long periods of time is completely new. Researchers at GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (Germany) and Harvard University in Massachusetts (USA) have now found strong evidence for this relationship from major volcanic eruptions around the Pacific Ocean over the past 1 million years. They have presented their results in the latest issue of the international journal "Geology".

The basic evidence for the discovery came from the work of the Collaborative Research Centre “Fluids and Volatiles in Subduction Zones (SFB 574). For more than ten years the project has been extensively exploring volcanoes of Central America. "Among others pieces of evidence, we have observations of ash layers in the seabed and have reconstructed the history of volcanic eruptions for the past 460,000 years," says GEOMAR volcanologist Dr Steffen Kutterolf, who has been with SFB 574 since its founding. Particular patterns started to appear. "There were periods when we found significantly more large eruptions than in others" says Kutterolf, the lead author of the Geology article.After comparing these patterns with the climate history, there was an amazing match. The periods of high volcanic activity followed fast, global temperature increases and associated rapid ice melting.

To expand the scope of the discoveries, Dr Kutterolf and his colleagues studied other cores from the entire Pacific region. These cores had been collected as part of the International Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and its predecessor programmes. They record more than a million years of the Earth’s history. "In fact, we found the same pattern from these cores as in Central America" says geophysicist Dr Marion Jegen from GEOMAR, who also participated in the recent study.Together with colleagues at Harvard University, the geologists and geophysicists searched for a possible explanation. They found it with the help of geological computer models. "In times of global warming, the glaciers are melting on the continents relatively quickly. At the same time the sea level rises. The weight on the continents decreases, while the weight on the oceanic tectonic plates increases. Thus, the stress changes within in the earth to open more routes for ascending magma" says Dr Jegen.

The rate of global cooling at the end of the warm phases is much slower, so there are less dramatic stress changes during these times. "If you follow the natural climate cycles, we are currently at the end of a really warm phase. Therefore, things are volcanically quieter now. The impact from man-made warming is still unclear based on our current understanding" says Dr Kutterolf. The next step is to investigate shorter-term historical variations to better understand implications for the present day.

.geomar.de (+ Pictures in high resolution)

Οι νεκροί Έλληνες στα μακεδονικά χώματα σάς κοιτούν με οργή

«Παριστάνετε τα "καλά παιδιά" ελπίζοντας στη στήριξη του διεθνή παράγοντα για να παραμείνετε στην εξουσία», ήταν η κατηγορία πο...