Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα costs. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων
Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα costs. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων

Τρίτη, Αυγούστου 08, 2017

Britain denies agreeing to multi-billion under Brexit divorce bill

A spokesperson for British Prime Minister Theresa May
A spokesperson for British Prime Minister Theresa May on Monday denied Britain agreed on the amount of its Brexit divorce bill, days after a report claimed that it plans to offer the European Union (EU) 36 billion pounds (46.8 billion US dollars).

Παρασκευή, Ιανουαρίου 02, 2015

Eco Geoplasm and Ydrodrom World News (January 2015 - B)

Les catastrophes naturelles en 2014 ont coûté nettement moins de vies humaines et causé moins de dégâts matériels que celles de 2013, selon une étude publiée mercredi par Munich Re .

Le géant allemand de la réassurance, dont l’étude annuelle fait référence en la matière, estime à 110 milliards de dollars (93 milliards d’euros) les coûts cumulés des catastrophes de l’an dernier, moins que l’année précédente (140 milliards de dollars) et que la moyenne des dix et même des 30 dernières années....................Le coût des catastrophes naturelles a reculé en 2014


January 2015 a


Παρασκευή, Οκτωβρίου 10, 2014

Ocean Acidification from Climate Change Could Cost $1 Trillion

The United Nations Environment Programme and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) released a report this week at a conference in Korea, compiling studies on the impact of increased ocean acidification, caused by absorbing carbon dioxide, on the marine and coastal ecosystems. 

The report updated a 2009 report, since the amount of research into ocean acidification has grown, along with concerns about the effect it is having on marine organisms and the economies dependent on them.

“The oceans are facing major threats due to rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,” said CBD’s executive secretary Braulio Ferreira de Souzo Dias in the report’s introduction. “In addition to driving global climate change, increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide affect ocean chemistry, impacting marine ecosystems and compromises the health of the oceans and their ability to provide important services to the global community. The impacts of ocean acidification are beginning to be felt in some areas, but future projections indicate even more broad-reaching deleterious impacts if action is not taken.”

The report finds that ocean acidification has increased about 26 percent in the past 200 years, absorbing more than a quarter of the carbon released by human activity. “Ocean acidification is a direct result of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations due to the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, cement production and other human activities,” it says.

It points out that the absorption of carbon by the ocean has significant benefits: by absorbing more than a quarter of human-produced carbon emissions, it has substantially slowed climate change. But that’s offset by the negative impact on seawater chemistry and its effect on marine life, as well as the economies and communities dependent on it.

“It is now nearly inevitable that within 50 to 100 years, continued anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions will further increase ocean acidity to levels that will have widespread impacts, mostly deleterious, on marine organisms and ecosystems, and the goods and services they provide.,” says the report. “Marine calcifying organisms seem particularly at risk, since additional energy will be required to form shells and skeletons, and in many ocean areas, unprotected shells and skeletons will dissolve.”

It points out that the cost to industries linked to just coral reefs could lose as much as $1 trillion annually by the end of the century if no action is taken.

“When ecosystems stop delivering the way they should, they essentially deliver less services and less benefits,” said Salvatore Arico of the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). “In the case of coral reefs, those systems are essential for people’s livelihoods in many regions of the world and they will be significantly affected.”

But the report also finds that international awareness of these consequences is growing, along with the amount of research being done.

“Many programs and projects are now investigating the impacts of ocean acidification on marine biodiversity and its wider implications, with strong international linkages,” it says. “The United Nations General Assembly has urged States to study ocean acidification, minimize its impacts and tackle its causes. Many United Nations bodies are focusing attention on these issues.”

| October 9, 2014

Κυριακή, Σεπτεμβρίου 14, 2014

Climate Change: The World, ‘It Turned Out Right’

Stefanie Spear (founder and CEO of EcoWatch):
Portugal student Gonçalo Tocha, as part of the Action4Climate video competition, produced the inspiring short film The Trail of a Tale, which is a monologue of a letter from the future written to our recent past, telling us that the world, “It turned out right.”

The nearly four-minute video is captivating as the narrator tells us, the stranger, how things went right. Society gathered with a fundamental belief that the “purpose of the economic system is to improve the world being for all within the limits of what the planet can sustain … We had to deal with overconsumption first. The prices we paid for things had to reflect the social and environmental costs…”

Deciding to be “more self sufficient and produce more locally” and realizing the “false consumer promise of buying happiness,” people in the new world had more time for themselves and their friends and family.

  • The film reminds the stranger of what life use to be like when “the world was divided by great wealth and extreme poverty … the global economy was falling apart … we were accelerating toward the cliff edge of catastrophic climate change.”

I’ve watched a lot of short films about climate change, and this one does an incredible job providing hope for the future.

***The Action4Climate video competition received more than 230 entries from 70 countries from students inspired to share their climate change stories. To watch other Action4Climate videos, click here.

Τετάρτη, Ιουλίου 23, 2014

Wrecked Concordia finally headed for scrapyard after massive salvage operation

GIGLIO ISLAND Italy - Maneouvres began early on Wednesday to remove the rusty hulk of the Costa Concordia cruise liner from the Italian island where it struck rocks and capsized two years ago, killing 32 people.

A convoy of 14 vessels, led by the tug boat Blizzard, will start to tow the Concordia later on Wednesday to a port near Genoa in northern Italy where it is due to arrive on Sunday, before being broken up for scrap.

The once-gleaming white luxury liner sank off the holiday island of Giglio in January 2012 after sailing too close to shore. Its wreck has remained there ever since as engineers embarked on one of the largest maritime salvage operations in history.

Over the past week, salvagers have slowly lifted the 114,500-tonne ship from underwater platforms by pumping air into 30 large metal boxes, or sponsons, attached to the hull.
Franco Porcellachia, engineer in charge of the salvage, said on Tuesday that his team had done everything in their power to make sure the ship, which is around two-and-a-half times the size of the Titanic, was structurally sound.

"When we are in sight of the port of Genoa, we can declare victory," said Franco Gabrielli, the head of Italy's civil protection service, on Wednesday.

The whole salvage operation is set to cost the ship's owners Costa Crociere, a unit of Carnival Corp over 1.5 billion euros ($2 billion), its chief executive said earlier this month....................http://www.todayonline.com/world/wrecked-concordia-finally-headed-scrapyard-after-massive-salvage-operation?singlepage=true

Τρίτη, Ιουνίου 24, 2014

Plastic waste causes $13 billion in annual damage to marine ecosystems, says UN agency

UN, 23 June 2014 – Concern is growing over widespread plastic waste that is threatening marine life – with conservative yearly estimates of $13 billion in financial damage to marine ecosystems, according to two reports issued at the inaugural meeting of the United Nations Environment Assembly.
“Plastic contamination threatens marine life, tourism, fisheries and businesses,” underscores the eleventh edition of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) Year Book, which updates 10 issues previously highlighted over the past decade and provides mitigation steps for each.

“Plastics undoubtedly play a crucial role in modern life, but the environmental impacts of the way we use them cannot be ignored,” added Achim Steiner, UNEP Executive Director.
Valuing Plastic, a UNEP-supported report produced by the Plastic Disclosure Project (PDP) and Trucost, makes the business case for managing and disclosing plastic use in the consumer goods industry. 

“Over 30 per cent of the natural capital costs are due to greenhouse gas emissions from raw material extraction and processing,” says the report, adding “marine pollution is the largest downstream cost, with the $13 billion figure most likely a significant underestimate.”
Calculating the negative financial impact of issues, such as marine environment or air pollution caused by incinerating plastic, the report reveals that the overall natural capital cost in the consumer goods sector each year is $75 billion.

A large and unquantifiable amount of plastic waste enters the ocean from littering, poorly managed landfills, tourist activities and fisheries. Some of this material sinks to the ocean floor, while some floats and can travel over great distances on ocean currents – polluting shorelines and accumulating in massive mid-ocean gyres.
“These reports show that reducing, recycling and redesigning products that use plastics can bring multiple green economy benefits: from reducing economic damage to marine ecosystems and the tourism and fisheries industries – vital for many developing countries – to bringing savings and opportunities for innovation to companies while reducing reputational risks,” advocated Mr. Steiner.

There have been many reliable reports of environmental damage due to plastic waste that include mortality or illness when ingested by sea creatures such as turtles; entanglement of animals, such as dolphins and whales; and damage to critical habitats, such as coral reefs.
There are also concerns about chemical contamination, invasive species spread by plastic fragments and economic damage to the fishing and tourism industries in many countries by, for example, fouling fishing equipment and polluting beaches.
Since the 2011 UNEP Year Book last reviewed plastic waste in the ocean, concern has grown over microplastics (particles up to 5 mm in diameter, either manufactured or created when plastic fragments), which have been ingested by marine organisms – including seabirds, fish, mussels, worms and zooplankton. 

“One emerging issue is the increasing use of microplastics directly in consumer products, such as ‘microbeads’ in toothpaste, gels and facial cleansers,” explains the UNEP Year Book. “These microplastics tend not to be filtered out during sewage treatment, but are released directly into rivers, lakes and the ocean.”
Communities of microbes have been discovered thriving on microplastics at multiple locations in the North Atlantic – where the “plastisphere” can facilitate the transport of harmful microbes, pathogens and algal species.

The Yearbook affirms that “microplastics have also been identified as a threat to larger organisms, such as the endangered northern right whale, which is potentially exposed to ingestion through filter-feeding.”
Production trends, use patterns and changing demographics are expected to cause increasing plastic use, and both reports call for companies, institutions and consumers to reduce their waste.

Valuing Plastic finds that while consumer goods companies currently save $4 billion each year through good plastic management, such as recycling, plastic use disclosure is poor. Less than half of the 100 companies assessed reported any data relevant to plastic.
“The research unveils the need for companies to consider their plastic footprint, just as they do for carbon, water and forestry,” said Andrew Russell, Director of the PDP. “By measuring, managing and reporting plastic use and disposal through the PDP, companies can mitigate the risks, maximize the opportunities, and become more successful and sustainable.”
Initiatives such as the PDP and UNEP-led Global Partnership on Marine Litter have helped raise awareness of, and begun to address, the issue. However, much more needs to be done.
Recommendations of the reports include that companies monitor their plastic use and publish the results in annual reports; and commit to reducing the environmental impact of plastic through clear targets, deadlines and efficiency and recycling innovations.
Since plastic particles can be ingested by marine organisms and potentially accumulate and deliver toxins through the food web, efforts should be stepped up to fill the knowledge gaps and better understand the capacity of various plastics to absorb and transfer persistent, toxic and bioaccumulating chemicals. 

“By putting a financial value on impacts – such as plastic waste – companies can further integrate effective environmental management into mainstream businesses,” asserted Trucost Chief Executive Richard Mattison. “By highlighting the savings from reuse and recycling, it builds a business case for proactive sustainability improvements.”

Δευτέρα, Ιανουαρίου 06, 2014

Spanish minister in Panama to end US$1.6b canal row

PANAMA CITY: A Spanish cabinet minister launched mediation efforts in Panama on Monday to resolve a US$1.6 billion dispute threatening to halt the expansion of the Central American nation's vital canal.
Public Works Minister Ana Pastor held separate meetings with Panama's president and executives of the Spanish-led consortium that has threatened to stop the project this month unless local authorities pay for the massive cost overruns.
After the two meetings, Pastor said the Grupo Unidos por el Canal (GUPC) consortium wanted to negotiate a way out of the impasse.
"The commitment of GUPC is to resolve everything within the contract and for that reason they will sit down for dialogue," she said.
"We are trying to reach an agreement that will be good for everybody," Pastor said after talks with Panamanian President Ricardo Martinelli.

Martinelli said the consortium and the Panama Canal Authority need to find a solution, even if it means going through international arbitration.
"Surely solutions will be found within the meeting. This is a project of global scope for Spain, Panama and the maritime community," he said.
Pastor met first with 16 GUPC executives, including the head of Spanish builder Sacyr, Manuel Manriquez. She will meet later with canal authority officials.
"The Spanish government will not support Sacyr with money. This is an issue between a company" and Panamanian authorities, Spain's ambassador Jesus Silva told reporters.
The construction group, which includes Impreglio of Italy, Belgium's Jan de Nul of Belgium and Constructora Urbana of Panama, warned on December 30 that it would suspend work in 21 days if authorities failed to pay for extra "unforeseen" charges.
  • The expansion project aims to make the 80-kilometre (50-mile) waterway, which handles five per cent of global maritime trade, big enough to handle new, giant cargo ships that can carry 12,000 containers.
  • Currently the canal can handle ships large enough to carry 5,000 containers.
The United States built the canal between 1904 and 1914 and had full control of the waterway until handing it over to Panama in late 1999.
The consortium began work on a third set of larger canal locks in 2009 and expects to complete construction in June 2015, already nine months over the contractual date. Work is about 70 per cent complete.
The overall cost of the project has been estimated at US$5.2 billion.
A year ago, GUPC demanded that the Panama Canal Authority pay the extra US$1.6 billion for the extra costs.
Sacyr says the extra charges are related to technical and geological matters, cement ingredients, weather conditions as well as tax, labour and financial issues.
Jose Pelaez, in charge of building the third set of locks, said Saturday that the rising price tag was partly due to problems in the regional geology that the Canal Authority had not detected.
On Sunday, the Panama Canal Authority said that the contractor's claims "have no legal standing and are not clear," and are not reason enough to halt the project.
"We're being cornered," canal administrator Jorge Quijano said, adding that Panama cannot become "hostage to a contractor."
Canal officials say there was already a four-month delay shortly after the project began caused by the reversal of a GUPC plan to use lower-quality cement.
Moreover, the consortium had "14 months before submitting their bid to closely study the components of the project" in order to submit a "solid" bid.

Κυριακή, Οκτωβρίου 27, 2013

El nuevo aeropuerto de Berlín, una pesadilla sin fecha de apertura./Cost Explosion: Price Tag for New Berlin Airport Keeps Rising (2 video)

1. El mantenimiento de sus instalaciones cuesta al erario 35 millones de euros mensuales.
2. El coste de la obra, fijado inicialmente en 2.400 millones de euros, podría superar los 5.00.
El nuevo aeropuerto de Berlín, que deberá reemplazar a los dos que funcionan actualmente y mejorar las conexiones transatlánticas de la capital alemana, se ha convertido en una de las obras inconclusas más discutidas de Europa y continúa sin fecha de apertura a la vista.
La última reunión de su consejo de administración, celebrada esta pasada semana, no ha arrojado luz sobre el futuro de las instalaciones, cuyo mantenimiento cuesta al erario público 35 millones de euros mensuales, aunque no se espera que puedan estar operativas antes de 2015.

El aeropuerto Willy Brandt -o Berlín Brandeburgo (BER)- empezó a construirse en 2006 y era uno de los proyectos estrella del alcalde gobernador de Berlín, Klaus Wowereit, y del primer ministro del estado federado de Brandeburgo, Mathias Platzek.
En 2010 se descartó ya la fecha prevista inicialmente para la apertura -noviembre de 2011- y se fijó un nuevo calendario: el BER comenzaría a funcionar el 3 de junio de 2012.
Todo parecía preparado, se organizaba la fiesta de inauguración e incluso las compañías aéreas habían vendido billetes de aviones que aterrizarían en sus pistas, pero un día antes se conoció la noticia, que cayó como un jarro de agua fría, de que la apertura tenía que ser aplazada indefinidamente.
La razón principal era que se había detectado que la terminal no cumplía con las normas de protección contra incendios, además de otros problemas técnicos que tenían que ser resueltos.
Al desastre de planificación se agregó el hecho de que Wowereit, que estaba al frente del consejo de administración, fue informado de los problemas en el último momento, cuando sólo quedaba cancelar de manera precipitada la apertura.

Cadena de despropósitos

Suspender la inauguración obligó, además, a dar marcha atrás a los planes de un cierre inmediato de los aeropuertos de Tegel y Schönefeld, ya preparados.
La cadena de despropósitos es objeto de una comisión de investigación en Berlín y, según publican este sábado los medios locales, sus miembros tienen desde este viernes nuevos documentos en sus manos.
La policía ha registrado las oficinas que tiene en Berlín y Hamburgo el estudio del arquitecto que planificó en un primer momento las obras, Meinhdard von Gerkan, y ha hallado documentos que atestiguan que ya desde el inicio se sabía que los plazos establecidos eran imposibles de cumplir.
Tras la suspensión de la inauguración el año pasado, se fijaron nuevas fechas de apertura que también han tenido que ser aplazadas. La última era este mes de octubre, pero en enero quedó claro que las obras no habrían concluido para entonces, lo que le costó el puesto al gerente del proyecto, Rainer Schwarz.
En marzo, Hartmut Mehdorn, ex presidente de Air Berlín y de Deutsche Bahn, reemplazó a Schwarz como uno de los posibles salvadores de lo que había dejado de ser un sueño para convertirse en pesadilla.

Un tándem fallido

En agosto del año anterior los administradores del proyecto habían depositado sus esperanzas en otro fichaje, Horst Amman, contratado como director de la parte técnica, pero el tándem con Mehdorn no ha funcionado.
Amann optó por enumerar los problemas por resolver y llegó a citar 60.000 carencias que debían ser subsanadas, lo que retrasaba la posibilidad de una apertura. Mehdorn le acusó de buscar sólo problemas y no soluciones y su opinión terminó por imponerse esta pasada semana, cuando el consejo de administración del BER decidió apartar a Amann de su cargo.
Además de los gobiernos de Berlín y Brandeburgo, participa en el proyecto el Ejecutivo alemán, representado por el Ministerio de Transportes, pero su papel ha sido más bien discreto.
El coste de las obras, fijado inicialmente en 2.400 millones de euros, podría superar los 5.000 millones, según cálculos de los medios de comunicación alemanes.

  • Cost Explosion: Price Tag for New Berlin Airport Keeps Rising
The seemingly neverending story of the German capital's scandal-plagued new airport continues: The much-delayed project is expected to cost far more than previously thought. And Berlin's mayor appears to be planning a return to the airport's supervisory board.

The forthcoming Berlin Airport will cost more than its previous estimate of €4.3 billion ($5.9 billion), according to a member of the project's supervisory board.

Rainer Bretschneider told public broadcaster ZDF on Sunday that the airport, which still lacks an official opening date, may breach the €5-billion mark. He added that costly noise insulation, previously budgeted at €305 million, may ultimately cost twice that amount. 
"I still believe the airport will be able to cover its costs, but not as swiftly as thought," Bretschneider said.
Cleaning, heating and lighting the fallow airport, officially called Berlin Brandenburg Willy Brandt Airport (BER), was previously found to be costing taxpayers €20 million per month -- more than the still-operational Tegel Airport.

BER was originally slated for a 2010 opening, but a long list of problems ranging from an insufficient fire safety system to cracks in the tile floors has forced officials to postpone the opening four times. The earliest estimates place the opening at some time next year.

Wowereit Comeback?
Meanwhile Berlin's mayor, Klaus Wowereit, is eyeing a permanent return to the top post of the airport's governing body. He gave up the office to the governor of the surrounding state of Brandenburg, Matthias Platzeck, earlier this year after the airport's opening was postponed indefinitely. Wowereit stepped back into the role in August after Platzeck resigned, agreeing to lead the board until a new chair could be elected. That election was due to take place on Wednesday, but Wowereit took it off the board's agenda late last week amid doubts that he could win the support of the Brandenburg state government. Thomas Heilmann, justice senator in Berlin's city-state government and a member of the conservative Christian Democrats (CDU), is also interested in the post, according to sources in the Berlin government.
The post is now set to be filled by December, when official talks between the CDU and the center-left Social Democrats (SPD) on forming a national coalition government will presumably be concluding. Wowereit, a big name in the SPD, could then enjoy more support from his party on the national level.


Τετάρτη, Απριλίου 03, 2013

«Χωματερή» πλοίων το Μπαγκλαντές (2 VIDEOS)

Παλιά ευρωπαϊκά πλοία που δεν μπορούν να ταξιδέψουν πια μεταφέρονται και διαλύονται στην Νοτιανατολική Ασία. Συχνά κάτω από απάνθρωπες συνθήκες. Η Ε.Ε. επιχειρεί να βελτιώσει την κατάσταση.
Σε μια παραλιακή έκταση εφτά χιλιομέτρων κοντά στην πόλη Σιταγκόνγκ στο Μπαγκλαντές υπάρχει δουλειά για 150.000 ανθρώπους. Εδώ και σαράντα χρόνια στην περιοχή αυτή βρίσκεται το μεγαλύτερο νεκροταφείο πλοίων στον κόσμο. Εκεί διαλύεται το 40% των πλοίων σε όλο τον κόσμο, τα οποία πλέον δεν ταξιδεύουν. Από τα πλοία αυτά ξεχωρίζουν πόρτες, παράθυρα, κρεβάτια και οτιδήποτε μπορεί να χρησιμοποιηθεί και στη συνέχεια πωλούνται.

Παρόμοιες επιχειρήσεις υπάρχουν και σε άλλες χώρες της Νοτιανατολικής Ασίας όπως το Πακιστάν και η Ινδία. Υπάρχει όμως και μια σκοτεινή πλευρά γύρω από αυτό το θέμα. Οι εργάτες συχνά δουλεύουν κάτω από άθλιες συνθήκες εργασίας: χαμηλά μεροκάματα, κακές συνθήκες ασφαλείας και μεγάλη επιβάρυνση για το περιβάλλον. Ο σκηνοθέτης Σαχίν Ντιλ Ριάζ βρέθηκε σε αυτές τις περιοχές το 2008 και γύρισε μια ταινία.
Όπως λέει, «υπάρχουν πολλοί τραυματισμοί όταν αποκόπτονται κομμάτια από το πλοίο ή σπάνε τα σχοινιά. Σε αυτές τις περιπτώσεις χάνουν το χέρι τους ή το πόδι τους. Και αυτό είναι καθημερινότητα».
Στην ταινία του με τίτλο «Ο σιδηροφάγος» διηγείται τις δύσκολες συνθήκες εργασίες αυτών των ανθρώπων. Και ο ίδιος είναι από το Μπαγκλαντές, αλλά από το 1992 βρίσκεται στη Γερμανία.

Δεν υπάρχει προθυμία από τους πλοιοκτήτες

Κατά τη γνώμη του, το χειρότερο είναι ότι τα ευρωπαϊκά εφοπλιστικά γραφεία στέλνουν σε ποσοστό 75% τα παλιά τους πλοία στη Νοτιανατολική Ασία, γνωρίζοντας τις συνθήκες που επικρατούν αλλά δεν κάνουν τίποτα.
«Δεν μπορούμε απλά να αφήσουμε ένα αυτοκίνητο έτσι στο δρόμο, αλλά θα πρέπει να αναλάβουμε και τα έξοδα για την απόσυρσή του. Γιατί δεν μπορεί να συμβαίνει το ίδιο με τα παλιά πλοία»;
Η Ε.Ε. θέλει τώρα να αλλάξει αυτή την κατάσταση και να θέσει τα εφοπλιστικά γραφεία προ των ευθυνών τους. Μέχρι σήμερα η νομοθεσία προέβλεπε ότι μετά από 8 χρόνια ταξιδιών στην Ε.Ε. τα πλοία θα μπορούσαν να πουληθούν εκτός Ε.Ε. και πολλά χρόνια αργότερα θα μπορούσαν να αποσυρθούν. Τα έξοδα της απόσυρσης βάρυναν τον τελευταίο πλοιοκτήτη. Μετά από πρωτοβουλία ορισμένων ευρωβουλευτών, στο εξής κάθε ευρωπαίος πλοιοκτήτης θα πρέπει να πληρώνει σε ένα ειδικό ταμείο επιπλέον τρία σεντ ανά τόνο, έτσι ώστε τα χρήματα αυτά να χρησιμοποιούνται για την ορθή απόσυρση των πλοίων. Για ένα πλοίο 100.000 τόνων θα έπρεπε να πληρώσει κανείς 3.000 ευρώ. Η προθυμία των ευρωπαίων πλοιοκτητών δεν είναι ιδιαίτερα μεγάλη.
«Το γεγονός ότι ένα πλοίο, ανήκει καταρχάς σε έναν γερμανό πλοιοκτήτη και μετά από πολλά χρόνια πρέπει να αποσυρθεί, δεν σημαίνει ότι ο πρώτος πλοιοκτήτης ευθύνεται για τον τρόπο που ο τελευταίος θέλει να αποσύρει το πλοίο του» λέει ο Ραλφ Νάγκελ από το σύνδεσμο Γερμανών Πλοιοκτητών. Εκτός αυτού εκφράζει τις αμφιβολίες του εάν πράγματι τα χρήματα του ειδικού ταμείου θα καταλήξουν στα χέρια των ανθρώπων που έχουν ανάγκη στη Νοτιανατολική Ασία.
Friedel Taube / Μαρία Ρηγούτσου
Υπεύθ. σύνταξης: Άρης Καλτιριμτζής

VIDEO ΣΧΕΤΙΚΟ:-Shipwreck is the story of Jahur, Lamu and Rubel, men that work at the ship yards breaking vessels in Chittagong, a coastal province of Bangladesh. This is the story of ordinary Bengali men struggling to raise their families against a backdrop of labor uncertainty, health hazards unknown to us, and salaries that make them the most competitive labor force in the world. Jahur is a cutter, a crafted worker that slices down the ships day and night. He sits at the top of the job positions in the yard. Rubel is younger, one of the many helpers assisting the cutters. He knows that if he misses a day, another youngster will replace him immediately: they are the bottom of the job pyramid. Lamu is older but strong, he is one of those workers that lift and carry steel planks all day. The three of them represent the whole of the man power assembled in the yards. This is their story.

Σάββατο, Ιανουαρίου 19, 2013

Japan to start building world's biggest offshore wind farm this summer

Japan is to start building its ambitious wind farm project off the Fukushima coast in July. The farm is expected to become the world’s largest and produce 1GW of power once completed in 2020.
­The power-generating facility will be built 16 kilometers off the coast of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which was critically damaged by an earthquake and tsunami in March 2011.
The 143 wind turbines, which are to be 200 meters in height, will be built on buoyant steel frames stabilized with ballast and anchored to the continental shelf.

Once completed in 2020, the project will generate 1 gigawatt of renewable electrical power. 
The project is part of Japan’s national plan to increase renewable energy resources following the nuclear disaster at Fukushima. After the quake, Japan shut down its 54 nuclear reactors, but due to energy shortages it has had to restart two reactors.
“This project is important. I think it is impossible to use nuclear power in Fukushima again,” project manager Takeshi Ishihara of the University of Tokyo told New Scientist weekly magazine.
Ishihara believes the area's seismic activity won't be a problem for the turbines. His team has carried out lots of computer simulations and water tank tests in order to verify the safety of the turbines in all possible extreme events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis and typhoons.
"All extreme conditions have been taken into consideration in the design," he added.
There were some objections to the project by local people, who expressed concerns, in particular, over possible impact on the fishing industry, which was also hit by the nuclear disaster. But Ishihara is sure it’s possible to turn the farm into a ‘marine pasture’ that would attract fish.
Facility specifications of forward project. (Image from Fukushima Floating Offshore Wind  Farm Demonstration Project, Takeshi Ishihara The University of Tokyo)
Facility specifications of forward project. (Image from Fukushima Floating Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project, Takeshi Ishihara The University of Tokyo)
The project is also part of the prefecture’s plan to become completely energy self-sufficient by 2040, using only renewable sources.  
The Fukushima wind farm will produce double the amount of energy of the Greater Gabbard array, currently the world’s biggest, off the coast of Suffolk in the United Kingdom, which generates 504 megawatts from its 140 turbines. Although the title of biggest will soon pass to the London Array in the Thames Estuary, where 175 turbines will produce 630 megawatts of power when it becomes operational later this year.
Scientists and researchers believe Japan’s wind capacity could reach 7.6 gigawatts over the next three years.
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Τετάρτη, Ιανουαρίου 09, 2013

Τι συμβαίνει με τα δημόσια έργα στη Γερμανία;

Η κατασκευή της φιλαρμονικής του Αμβούργου έχει παγώσει από τον Νοέμβριο του 2011 λόγω προβλημάτων στη στέγη. Η υπογειοποίηση του σιδηροδρομικού σταθμού της Στουτγάρδης προξένησε τεράστιες αντιδράσεις λόγω συνεχούς αναθεώρησης προς τα πάνω των εκτιμήσεων για το κόστος. Και οι προσκλήσεις για τα εγκαίνια του νέου αεροδρομίου του Βερολίνου, που επρόκειτο να σταλούν ύστερα από πολλές καθυστερήσεις, πέρυσι το καλοκαίρι, ίσως τυπωθούν, αν όλα πάνε καλά, το 2014.
Τι συμβαίνει με τα γερμανικά δημόσια έργα; «Μήπως οι Γερμανοί δεν είναι πλέον τόσο σχολαστικοί και προσεκτικοί όσο υπονοεί η φήμη τους;» διερωτάται άρθρο στην ιστοσελίδα της Deutsche Welle. «Οι Γερμανοί εργάζονται σκληρά και είναι συνεπείς, ενώ έχουν τη φήμη ότι φέρνουν σε πέρας ό,τι αποφασίσουν να κάνουν. Ομως, σε πολλά μεγάλα έργα στη Γερμανία παρουσιάζονται αναπάντεχα προβλήματα: καθυστερήσεις, εκρηκτικές αυξήσεις κόστους, κακοτεχνίες, διασπάθιση δημοσίου χρήματος και διαφθορά».
Ο κεντρικός σιδηροδρομικός σταθμός του Βερολίνου κατέληξε να κοστίσει 1,2 δισ. ευρώ, ποσό τετραπλάσιο από τις αρχικές εκτιμήσεις των 300 εκατομμυρίων. Το αεροδρόμιο Βίλι Μπραντ, που έχει προβλήματα στο σύστημα πυροπροστασίας και σε άλλα τεχνικά ζητήματα, θα κοστίσει 4,4 δισ. ευρώ – σύμφωνα με τις τωρινές εκτιμήσεις. Το ποσό είναι κατά 50% υψηλότερο από την ήδη αναθεωρημένη προς τα πάνω προηγούμενη εκτίμηση.
Τα παραδείγματα δεν είναι μεμονωμένα, ούτε αφορούν μόνο τη Γερμανία ούτε εντοπίζονται μόνο στη σημερινή εποχή. Μελέτη Δανών επιστημόνων το 2003 συνέκρινε το προβλεπόμενο κόστος κατασκευής δημόσιων έργων με το τελικό κόστος κατασκευής τους σε πολλές χώρες του κόσμου για μια περίοδο 70 ετών. Τα συμπεράσματα της έρευνας ήταν συγκλονιστικά. Στο 86% των περιπτώσεων τα έργα κατέληγαν να κοστίζουν περισσότερο από όσο αρχικά υπολογιζόταν, μόνο το 14% ήταν εντός προϋπολογισμού. Παρά την τεχνογνωσία που συσσωρεύεται σε βάθος δεκαετιών, παρά την ύπαρξη εξαιρετικά ισχυρών υπολογιστικών εργαλείων για το μάνατζμεντ μεγάλων έργων, οι υπερβάσεις κόστους δεν μειώνονται στη διάρκεια των δεκαετιών. Κοινώς, σε αυτόν τον τομέα δεν υπάρχει πρόοδος, καθώς, περιέργως, οι κατασκευαστές δεν διδάσκονται από τα σφάλματά τους. Διαπιστώνοντας την επιμονή των υπερβάσεων κόστους ανεξαρτήτως, οι επιστήμονες του Πανεπιστημίου του Ααλμποργκ κατέληξαν στο συμπέρασμα ότι αυτή δεν διορθώνεται γιατί είναι πιθανότατα σκόπιμη.
Κάτι ανάλογο πιστεύει και ο καθηγητής στη σχολή εφαρμοσμένων επιστημών του Νοϊμπράντενμπουργκ, Φραντς Γιόζεφ Σλάπκα. «Αν δήλωναν εξαρχής το πραγματικό κόστος, τότε μπορεί τα έργα να μη γίνονταν», είπε ο Σλάπκα, τονίζοντας ότι αυτοί που θέλουν να ολοκληρωθούν τα έργα προτιμούν να μην αποκαλύψουν όλα όσα γνωρίζουν.
Ο Φόλκερ Κορνέλιους, πρόεδρος της γερμανικής ένωσης συμβούλων μηχανικών, επισημαίνει ότι το κόστος αυξάνεται λόγω αλλαγών και προσθηκών κατά τη διάρκεια της κατασκευής. «Οι κατασκευαστικές εταιρείες κάνουν ένα σωρό προτάσεις που θα τους επιτρέψουν να αυξήσουν το κόστος της αρχικής προσφοράς», λέει.
Ομως ο Πέτερ Τσέσλοκ, πρόεδρος της γερμανικής διεθνούς εταιρείας συμβούλων κατασκευών Ντρες & Ζόμερ, τονίζει ότι ευθύνονται αυτοί που αναθέτουν τα έργα, επειδή δεν τα αναθέτουν σε έναν εργολάβο αλλά σε πολλούς μικρότερους, προσπαθώντας να κάνουν οικονομία.

Construction mishaps 'Made in Germany'

Skyrocketing costs, delays - and then there's botched work. A lot is going wrong on German construction sites. Are Germans no longer as meticulous and thorough as their reputation suggests?
Germans are hard-working, punctual and industrious - they have the reputation of being able to achieve whatever they set their minds to. However, in many large-scale projects in Germany, one can find unexpected problems: delays, cost explosions, botched work, embezzlement and corruption.
One example of this is Berlin's central train station. Originally estimated at 300 million euros, the structure ended up costing 1.2 billion euros. Currently under fire is planning for the Willy Brandt Airport in Berlin-Brandenburg, the completion of which has been repeatedly been postponed, leading to ever-increasing costs. According to media reports, construction of the airport is now estimated at 4.3 billion euros - 50 percent more than originally budgeted.
Doing the math
Peter Tzeschlock, chairman at the international building consulting agency Drees and Sommer, believes that calculation errors are not the cause of the mishaps. He puts forth one main reason as that commissions have been awarded over the past few years to individual instead of general contractors, particularly for large-scale projects. This has forced building owners into coordinating all interfaces between the contractors by themselves, Tzeschlock said.
"As long as the client can manage this, he can reduce costs by up to 30 percent," Tzeschlock said. With large-scale projects valued at hundreds of millions of euros, this could amount to a huge savings potential. But the building owner also bears more responsibility - when something goes wrong, it can usually be traced back to some mistake made in these interfaces.........http://www.dw.de/construction-mishaps-made-in-germany/a-16504372 


Οι νεκροί Έλληνες στα μακεδονικά χώματα σάς κοιτούν με οργή

«Παριστάνετε τα "καλά παιδιά" ελπίζοντας στη στήριξη του διεθνή παράγοντα για να παραμείνετε στην εξουσία», ήταν η κατηγορία πο...